Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Can a single theoretical approach explain the contemporary global politics?

The study of politics has been dominated by various theories and ideologies to explain to the contemporary actions of states and the international systems. Theories in politics have been of essential value for us to understand global politics and the domestic politics as well. They study of these theories gives us a view of what the world is like and how it operates and why it operates in such a way. This essay is going to elucidate and explain why a single theoretical approach can not explain the contemporary global politics.

According to Viotti and Kauppi (3:1998) a theory is an intellectual construct that helps one to select facts and interpret them in such a way as to facilitate explanation and prediction concerning regularities and recurrences or repetitions of observed phenomena. The theories are divided into two categories thus the empirical and the normative Viotti and Kauppi (5:1993) describe the empirical as theories in the social or natural sciences, by contrast, relate to facts and provide explanation or predication of phenomena and the normative theories as they deal with the values and value preferences.

Realism is one of the many theories in pursuit to explain global politics according to Rourke (36:2005) it is paradigm based on the premises that world politics is essentially and unchangeably a struggle among self interested states for power and position of anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interests. As globalization is taking place where countries are heavy relying on each other in terms on technology and economic expansion states interests are still a major obscure of globalization. According to Baylis and Smith (36:2005) realism can be traced back to Ancient Greek Thucydides a Greek Historian in his account of the Peloponnesian wars between Athens and Sparta. Smith, Booth and Zalewsk (55:1996) realism is not an ideological position as such but it’s a natural home of those disposed towards conservative ideology. According to Smith, Booth and Zalewsk (51:1996).

realism emphasizes the competitive and conflict side of international relations, this is reflected in it’s core ideas like the balance of power, which is one of the most long standing analytical tools of realism and the security dilemma, which provides the essential link between realism and strategic studies, it’s emphasis on state derives from the sense the state is the dominant wielder of power in the international system.

According to Baylis and Smith (165; 2005) the state is indentified as the key actor in international politics, must pursue power and its duty of the statesperson and to perpetuate the life of the state in a hostile and threatening environment. Most of the world countries pursue power, the world powerful states such as the United states and The European countries like to dominate weaker states because they have military advantage and technological advantage this has led to a new from of imperialism in the world as the powerful countries control the economies of the weaker states through the operations of the multi transnational companies that are largely own by the powerful states. According to Smith, Booth and Zalewsk (61:1996) realism can be taken as a standing from of anarchic ordering of the world politics, the September 1980 invading of Iran by the neighbor Iraq was a clear violation of country’s sovereignty but to Iraq they were putting their national interests for this invasion.

Realism has three important aspects thus survival statism and self help. According to Slaughter (1995; 503) in realism states are the primary actors in the international system, being rational unitary actors who are functionally identical. Survival of the state is one of the most paramount objectives of all states in the world without survival they bound to be creation of failed states that do not function properly. According to Wittkopf and Kegley (37:2005) with the realist paradigm, the purpose if statecraft is national survival in a hostile environment, no means is more important than the self help and the acquisition of power. State sovereignty is the corner stone of the survival of the states. However according to Smith, Booth and Zalewsk (53:1996) many states are too weak and ill formed to sustain the inside and outside distinction Somalia and Rwanda as some of the weak states that can withstand the external forces and the internal forces that make the state survival difficult state has been penetrated by transnational actors and forces that inside and outside distinction has become a meaningless blur. The liberalism theory is more appropriate as it hinders suppression of weaker countries and that is the present global scenario where by countries are all governed by the United Nations with the international laws to protect each state.
Statism according to Baylis and Smith (163;2005) the term given to the idea of state as the legitimate representative of the collective will of the people ,the legitimate of the state gives it authority to make and enforcement of law. They are no countries through out the world without laws to govern the conduct of its citizens the presences of the constitution whether codified or uncodified. As a state as a legitimate entry it shows it enjoys recognition with other states.

Other important aspect of the Realism theory is the aspect of self help according to Baylis and Smith (164:2005) self help is the principle of action in an anarchical system where there is no global government. This implies that each state takes care of its domestic affairs, the 2008world recession has hit all the counties in the world has had negative impacts to various counties with them finding ways to combat its effects in their domestic economies the help of the regional and international actors seems to be all in vain the powerful states bail themselves out of the world recession crisis and weaker sates are still lamenting in agony from the effects of this global financial melt own.

The realism theory according to Smith, Booth and Zalewsk (61:1996) the unusual cold war can be seen as a classic demonstration of neo-realist power politics with the unsuccessful challenger imploding and its successors desperately trying to reform themselves on the model of the victors. Realism prohibit cooperation and alliances the non existence of the world government to this theory can cause havoc and the destabilization of the status quo in all countries as state interests and be aggressive and may conflict with the other. This theory can not operate alone without the liberalism, Marxists and Constructive approach so the study of it alone can not explain the existence of transnational, intergovernational and diplomatic relations that exist between countries which are aspects of liberalism.

The Liberalism, theory also known as the pluralism theory also tries to explain the contemporary global politics according to Rouke (18:2005) liberalism reject the notion that all or most humans are inherently political predators, instead liberals believe that humans and their countries are capable of achieving more cooperative, less conflictive relations either through current government structures or through new models of governance. Baylis and Smith (188:2005) define liberalism as theory of both government within states and good governance between states and people worldwide. The establishments of regional and intergovernmental organizations such as the UN show how imperative cooperation is to the world in regulating and governing the states acts. In addition Rourke (18:2005) elaborated that humans can cooperate in order to achieve mutual benefits, anarchic system hinders cooperation is to be build effective international organizations.

For economical, environmental and political concerns the states need to collaborate to create a stable world. Environmental protection with the threat of global warming, the threat of terrorists attacks, threat to global economic melt down and the threat to nuclear abuse can cause major destruction of the world. According to Rourke (22; 2004) the spread of nuclear weapons, the increases in economic interdependence among countries the decline of world resources, the daunting gap between the rich and the poor and the mounting damage of the ecosphere mean humans must learn to co operate more fully because they are in danger of suffering a catastrophe of unparalleled proportions.

Baylis and Smith (187;2005) elaborated that liberalism see the cause of war located in imperialism other in the failure of the balance of power and still others in the problem of undemocratic regimes. All these inadequacies can be addressed through international cooperation of territories. In addition Baylis and Smith (188:2005) highlights that domestic and international institutions are required to protect and nurture the values of individualism, tolerance, freedom and constitutionalism.

Liberalism according to Viotti and Kauppi (185:1998) have different assumptions that they are different kinds of state own enterprise, multinational corporations, public international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, private foundations and terrorists, as well as states. As liberalism is mainly concerned about cooperation the present global scenario the economic of states are interdependent as trade of goods and the exchange of economic ideas between countries have highly increased. Viotti and Kauppi (185:1998) also elaborates that all actors and are all rational and calculating but they pursue different objectives and also international relations and especially international political economy offers opportunities for everyone to gain at the same time. Libralism has to a greater extent allowed global interactions between states.

However the according to Rouke (79:2005) the eroding of autonomy of the state to generate a more cooperative global community has affect all the states especially the weaker states and the growth of the transnational and interdependence is diminishing the capacity of the state governments to regulate both domestic and international politics. The eroding of the country sovereignty has become a major problem of the practice of this theory and most states are avoiding this as Rouke (79:2005) states that the states are strenuously resisting attempts to have their authority transferred to global institutions, the surrender of the country sovereignty to improve states can be highlighted by the EU’s control of economic and even political authority over it’s member countries. The realism theory tries to keep the states interests and sovereignty as they are the cornerstone of a country but although they are the fundamental backbone of the international states cooperation is also need as globalization is increasing the states diplomatic relations ands trade so the study of the two theories support the existence of the states and its actions, the practice of one of the theories without the other leads to the failure of the states operations. So it very certain that the present contemporary global politics is composed of all the theories as they are all practiced by the world actors.

The Marxists theory later developed by Wallerstein to the Capitalist World Economy theory as one of the theories to explain the contemporary global politics is according to Rourke (87:2005) it is an economy system socially structured by an integrated axial division of labour, whose guiding principle is the ceaseless accumulation of capital, the principle has been the construction of extensive commodity chains of production that across political boundaries. Baylis and Smith (229:2005) the central dynamic that Marx identifies is the tension between the means of production and the relations of production that together from the economic base of a given society.

Capitalism has been s global expected theory with states and other international actors are in pursuit of accumulation of wealth these has led to many conflicts in the world some has led to devastating wars. The wars by the super power the United States of America on Iraq 2003 after the September 11 attacks were not just but it was in the bide to control the rich oil country. According to Baylis and Smith the ( 229;2005) he agued that that ,just as there is class conflict within every society ,there is conflict on a global scale between the interests of developed capitalist societies which form the global core ,underdeveloped economies. The Marxists theorists take into consideration the aspects of globalization that of according to Baylis and Smith (245;2005) growing integration of national economies, a growing awareness of ecological interdependence ,the proliferation of companies ,social movements and intergovernmental agencies operating on a global scale.

According to Viotti and Kauppi (369; 1998) the political super structure of the capitalist world –economy is an interstates system within which and through which political structures called ‘sovereign states’ are legitimized and constrained. The sovereignty of the states is important in the capitalist world economy but however the world economy system is highly interdependent and interrelated in its economic systems. According to Baylis and Smith (246:2005) the world has been dominated by a single integrated economic and political entity –a global capitalist system –which has gradually incorporated all humanity within its grasp. The effects of the world 2008 to 2009 economic recession can be a clear indication of how the world economics have been integrated as the effects of the US economy can affect the rest of the world.

Baylis and Smith (231:2005) states that the development of monopoly capitalism a two tier structure has developed within the World –economy with a domination core exploiting a less –developed periphery. The powerful states are dominating the weaker states economically with the establishment of their own home companies the so called transnational companies that are exploiting the environment and the people of the weaker states by giving them low wages the repatriation of profits by these companies is for them to improve their own countries. As according to Baylis and Smith (231:2005) the bourgeoisie core countries could use profits derived from exploiting the periphery to improve the lot of their proletariat. The current contemporary global politics suits this theory as capitalism of the world economy is now more intensive but it can not fully explain the actions and events that are happening throughout the world without the use of the other theoretical theories. The hegemony of the United States were it is in control of the world economy the use of its currency as the international currency can show that the world economic system is not that effective. Imperialism has taken trend as powerful states are recolonizing the weaker states indirectly inform of economic dependency.

The social constructivist’s theoretical approach is of one of the fundamental theories that tries to explain the contemporary global politics according to Rouke (52;2004) social constructivism is liberal –realist theoretical approach advocated by Alexander Wendt that sees self interested states as the key actors in world politics their actions are determined not by anarchy but by the ways states socially “construct” and then respond to the power politics ,so that at their definition change ,cooperative practices can evolve. Constructivists belief in sharing of ideas and that the development of the international actors lies within cooperation and interrelation.

Rourke (53:2005) further elaborates that social constructivism attempts to bridge the gap between neoliberal and neorealist’s theories by accepting many assumptions shared by both approaches while critically rejecting realism’s failure to pay attention to the powerful role of ideas and norms of the world politics. The presence of international organizations such as the UN is a social constructive approach in some way were there world counties interrelate and construct how and individual state should act the example of the Millennium Development Goals were set in place to construct the way the actors of the international system should act to achieve the stated goals. According to Baylis and Smith (253:2005) constructivism was interested in the role of international norms and conceptualizing international politics not as a system but as a society. The world countries are slowly becoming one society with similar characteristics as they now more interaction.

The social constructivism according to Rourke (50:2004) its main core concern is social collectiveness of shared meanings and images of the contemporary international life and the theoretical implementations of these visions with a motive of explaining what drives international actors in various epochs. This theory shows the true picture of international relations in the contemporary global politics.

The contemporary global politics can not be explained by one single theoretical approach as they are many forms that one theory can not describe. One theoretical approach may lack the explanations of what is happening at the present moment so all the theoretical approaches must be taken into consideration when trying to explain the global politics.


Baylis J and Smith S. 2005: The Globalization of world Politics 3rd edition: Oxford University Press USA

Rourke J T. 1998 International Politics on the world stage 10th edition The Duskin Publishing Group Inc USA

Slaughter, A: 1995: International law in a world of liberal State: European journal of international law

Smith .S, Booth .K, Zalewski M: 1996: International theory; positivism and beyond; The press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge; United Kingdom

Wittkopf E.R and Kegley C.W Jr: 2004: World Politics trend and Transformation 9th EDITION: Thomson Learning Inc USA

Viotti.P.R and Kauppi M.V (1998) International Relations Theory: Realism, pluralism, globalism and Beyond 3rd edition: Pearson education: USA

Based on your reading of Richard Little’s Chapter on International Regimes explain the concept of regimes state how they promote international coopera

The prominence of international regimes functions of the modern world has increased such that the world countries are now highly reliant on these regimes for state operations politically ,economically and socially; the aspect of globalization is promoting the existence of these regimes in the world. This essay is going to explain the concept of regimes and state how they promote international cooperation and delineate the factors impeding their formation.

International regimes according to Baylis and Smith (373:2005) regimes are sets of implicit and explicit principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures around which actor’s expectations converge in a given area of international relations. Regimes a bound by the four fundamental elements as according to Baylis and Smith(373;2005) which are princilples,norms,rules and decision making procedures. These elements are inessential to the existence of the regimes and are the necessary elements for the formation of regimes. Baylis and Smith (374:2005) also elaborates that they are types of regimes which are the tacit regime which exist with absence of rules but they is an expectation that informal rules will be observed, a dead-letter regime has formal rules inexistence but they is no expectation that the rules will be observed and lastly they are the full blown regimes were they is high expectation that all the formal rules will be observed. The presence of these international regimes can be shown by the regional cooperation and integration of activities through out the world whether political, economic and social activities.

To understand the existence of regimes globally the political schools of thoughts which are realism, liberalism and social constructivists play the pivotal role to explain why these regimes exist internationally. The social constructivists according to Smith and Baylis (371:2005) assume that the existence of rules can help to shape how actors define their identity and interests and demonstrate that they have a common view of the world and the liberal approach focus on the way regimes allow states to overcome obstacles to collaboration imposed by the anarchic structure of the international system and lastly the realists are interested by the way the states use their power capabilities in situations requiring coordination to the influence the nature of regimes and the way of costs and benefits derived from the regime formation. These political schools of thought explain why they are regimes internationally as the actors wants to achieve different objectives.
According to Rourke and Boyer (167:2000) the idea o regimes is based on the theory that comprehensive cooperation will evolve through the process that gradually merges the initially separated rules of international law and treaties .The interdependence between countries through out the world which is being agitated by the process of globalization has resulted in the formation of regimes. Russett, Starr and Kinsell (395:2006)elaborates that international interdependence has grown and is out pacing the ability of states to control it, regimes are now controlling the problems being faced by countries regionally or internationally. The integration of the world economies has to a larger extent been influential to the regimes formation the existence of free trade and economic diplomatic relations in the world has been of major prudence to the existence of regimes.

Regimes are created as result of common interest between countries the establishment of the UN as the global regimes there to maintain international peace was of interest of all the countries to avoid the effects of the World War II. The existence of other IGOs require multilateral cooperation between states which leads to the formation of these regimes the SADC,OPEC,EU,EEC(European Economic Community) and the COMESA are some of the international regimes created to enhance cooperation and integration of the world activities.

Regimes have promoted cooperation in international relations as cooperation between different actors politically, economically and socially can be noticed. The establishment of the security regimes in international relations to govern states functions and defend the states from outside interference for the to enjoy their sovereignty has promoted cooperation among states as they cooperate in issues that affect their security matters. According to Baylis and Smith (375:2005) the Partial Test Agreement of 1963 has undoubtedly encouraged a prohibition of atmospheric testing and the 1986 Nonproliferation Agreement continuous to act as a restraint on any increase in the number of nuclear weapons this agreement was signed by many countries for security reasons.

International cooperation between actors on security has been influenced by UN, being the supernatural body governing and enforcing this agreements and treaties imposing sanctions to those countries that hinder progress of the operation of the regimes. Security regimes have made it possible for international cooperation however actors usually violate this treaties in pursue of the own interests as state interests are more important than international interests the refusal by the North Korea to disenable their nuclear programmers and rocket launching has caused a major concern to the world security.

The increase in international contact between actors has promoted cooperation as the formation of communication regimes has made interaction of the world states possible. With the state of anarchy decreasing in the international order communication regimes have become of vital importance. Baylis and Smith (375:2005) elaborate that the resulting network of regimes can be seen to provide an essential part of the infrastructure underpinning the modern international economy. Free movement of communication systems which is advocated by the communication regimes has encouraged great cooperation between countries as diplomatic relations strengthens between actors.

Baylis and Smith (376:2005) elaborate that 1865 the International Telegraph Union was there to regulate telegraphic communication and the 1932 International Telecommunications Union to cope with the increasing technological developments in communications, International Maritime Organization and the International Aviation Organization are there to govern areas of shipping and aircraft all these were regimes formed to encourage cooperation. The violation of the regimes rules and norms results in the international outcry on the disobedient actor, with economic strict measures or war being imposed on the state. According to Kegley and Wittkopf (318:2004) by providing more information, establishing mechanisms for monitoring and generating shared expectations institutions can create an environment in which interstate cooperation is possible even without a single dominant leader.

The environment has been of global concern ever since the beginning of the industrial revolution as major consequences are caused by environment pollution, degradation and distraction. The formation of environmental regimes has allowed international cooperation as the states and non states actors are working together to avoid the distraction of the environment. According to Baylis and Smith (375; 2005) oil pollution, global warming and the damage of the ozone layer are the issues that have attracted most public attention but regimes have been established in a wide range of areas in the attempt to protect global environment, Convention on Biological Diversity December 1993, Basle Convention March 1993 and the United Nation Environmental Programme are some of the regimes established to encourage international cooperation on the issues of environmental management.

The economic regimes are of the most fundamental importance in the world as states globally tries to strengthen their economies as the strength of the economy shows how much power the states has. The establishment of the economic regimes has enhanced international cooperation globally. Economic regimes have been the major catalyst in regulating the international relations. According to Kegley and Wittkopf (319:2004) the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was designed to promote and protect free trade in the post war LIEO, the WTO was for free trade management and enhanced dispute settlement procedures as well a guard against trade wars. The trade regimes promote countries to work together in trade without any hindrance as the trade is bound by rules and procedures that are internationally recognized. The international Monetary fund and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development are also some of the international regimes that allows international cooperation between countries as Baliys and Smith (376:2005) elaborates that they were established in 1945 to promote an environment where trade flourish.

They are various factors that impend the formation of regimes in international regimes according t o Little and Smith (113:1991) sovereignty and self help mean that the principles and values of international regimes will necessary be weak than that of the domestic society. The sovereignty of a country is more important as well as the national interests these factors limit the degree of confidence to be placed in international agreements that are advocated for by the regimes. In addition Little and Smith (114:1991) in a world political economy is characterized by the growing interdependence the governments my wish to solve common problems and pursue complementary purposes without subordinating themselves to hierarchical systems of control. The survival of the states is the fist goal of every nation the rules, principles, decision making and norms which are advocated by the regimes are not of major concern to the actors hence the formation of regimes is bound with common interests and formal agreement without that the regime is nonexistent.

The anarchical structure in international relations impend the formation of international regimes as they hinder cooperation in the world some of the states in the world like North Korea on the nuclear development and the United States on the attacks on Iraq have violated the regimes principles, norms and rules making the formation of the regimes uncertain. According to Baylis and Smith (377:2005) the liberal institutionalists assume that the anarchic structure of the international system poses a significant problem were competition is likely to cause market failure, at the global context the failure of states to collaborate and rather compete will likely result in the impending of the formation of regimes. The development of the Prisoners Dilemma as according to Baylis and Smith (379:2005) indicates that market failure occur because of the anarchic system there is an expectation that states will compete rather than collaborate.

According to Kegley and Wittkopf (49:2004) the existence of a hegemonic power as the United States a clearly predominant state in the global arena with exercises leadership and control of the global system by setting and enforcing the rules governing international trade, finance, investment and other issues prohibit the formation of regimes. The hegemonic of the United States has not yet declined in the international order as it still control the world as it is the power house of the world economy the presence of a hegemonic power will result in the impending of the formation of international regimes.

The establishment of international regimes has promoted international cooperation to with states and no state actors working together in areas of common interests. The attainment of global peace and security as well as a sound global economy is the attributes of the international regimes. Globalization process has encouraged states to cooperate and collaborate together in all aspects through the formation of regimes although they are factors that hinder the formation of regimes, regimes have been the catalyst of increasing cooperation as the world in no highly interdependent.


Baylis J and Smith S 2005 The Globalization of world Politics 3rd edition Oxford University Press USA

Little.R and Smith M. 1991. Prospective on World Politics 2nd edition. Open University Press and Groom Helm. London

Rourke J.T and Boyer M.A 2000 ;World Politics international Politics on the World stage Brief The Duskin Publishing Group Inc USA

Russett B, Starr H and Kinsell D 2006 International regimes, World Politics the Menu for Choice:
Thomson Wadsworth: USA

Wittkopf E.R and Kegley C.W Jr: 2004: World Politics trend and Transformation: Thomson Learning Inc USA

In you own opinion, do the International system and its various components function effectively, and does it adequately address the concerns of citize

The aspects of globalization has influenced different states of the world to be interlinked operating as one in terms of economy, politics and environmental stability .This essay is going to discuss international systems and it’s various components if they function effectively focusing on their impact on political and economic stability, living standards and social and cultural interaction between different societies.

International system has become very imperative in the world we live in as globalization is at its peak, globalization has led to the creation of international systems they operate within the globe. Globalization according to Baylis and Smith (8:2005) it is a process of increasing interconnectedness between societies such that the events of the world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away. According to Spiegel, Taw, Wehing and Williams (7:2005) the “international systems” is a comforting expression which assumes that international relations can be described according to a single unifying logic which inspires the actions of well –identified action. The international system comprise of various actors that perform different functions they are certain procedures and behavioral tendencies that the actors must adhere to or follow because any action is of global concern.

According to Rourke (57:1993) an international system is comprised of various aspects, the Nation State which is a state with a territorially based political organization that claims and is generally accorded sovereignty, the supranational actors which are composed of individual countries as members, have organizational authority at least theoretically supercede the sovereignty of it’s individual members an example of the high international order. Examples of these supranational actors or intergovernmental actors they are the General Purpose Universal Organizations like the UN and Regional Organization like the AU and Alliances like the NATO and lastly the transnational actors MNCs (multinational companies) and non intergovernmental actors the NGOs. These actors play a vital role in influencing the political, economic, living standards and cultural interaction between societies.

Various actors of the International systems have shown to a greater extent that they have their benefits and disadvantages in their operations. The existence of these actors such as the supranational actors, composed of regional organizations which are also called General Purpose Universal organizations, the UN in particular which was founded in 1945 has adequately managed to function and address the concerns of citizens from all parts of the globe. This organization according to Baylis and Smith (406;2005) which is composed of various countries with a number of 192 countries in its membership thus like all the countries in the world, in the international system the United Nations has managed to function effectively in terms of international politics. This can be noted by the global peace that prevails. According to Baylis and Smith (406:2005) the objectives of the United Nations are to maintain international peace and stability develop friendly relations among nations, cooperate in solving international problems, promoting respect of human rights and harmonizing the actions of nations.

These objectives have been fully achieved maintenance international peace and stability universal goal has been achieved for example the war in Liberia, Somalia and DRC the United Nations has managed to send peacekeeping forces and humanitarian aid. According to Baylis and Smith (115:2005) international forces are used in defiance of sovereignty of a state in order to protect humanitarian standards. The United Nations specialized agencies UNICEF, WHO, ILO, FAO and WTO to mention just a few have managed to function effectively to being sanity through out the world.

The most objective that have been more effective politically is to influence the policy decision making in the different states they by solving the international problems the Millennium Development Goals which were fully adopted by the countries show how this international actor has been successful in combating the international problems. According to Baylis and Smith (118; 2005) the effectiveness of the United Nations can be fully recognized in solving problems such as rebuilding failed states, supporting democratization, promoting human development, addressing HIV/AIDS and poverty and disease have made UN an indispensable resource, this has been good in enforcing homogeneity of polices which allows regional and international integration in strategic goals formulation.

Nevertheless of the positive impact of the intergovernmental actors politically they have brought the weakness in terms of the state operations according to Rourke (67; 1993) individual states policy no longer counts as policy homogeneity is now being followed by all the countries of the world. The failure of the international actors to control the USA national interest when they invaded Iraq in 2003 show how ineffective these international actors are, powerful states like the USA and Britain still control the world countries which is the creation of a bipolar system according to Baylis and Smith (406; 2005) the failure to get UN security Council authorization for the war in Iraq in 2003 shows how the UN is ineffective in dealing with international matters that affect the global peace and stability. In addition Rourke (442; 1993) the states sovereignty is now eroded as domestic economic including employment, inflation and overall growth, is heavy dependent on foreign markets ,imports of resources ,currency exchange rates, and a variety of international economic factor. The rise of free trade promoted by the intergovernmental organization is both a cause and result of international economic interdependence. This has been caused by the UN objective of promoting free trade and relations. Whilst the global peace and stability is begin threaten by civil conflict, humanitarian emergencies, human rights violations, poverty and inequality and tribal wars like those which led to Rwanda genocide the United Nations seems to be nonexistence as they are no permanent solution to these problems yet.

Economically the supernatural actors have contributed a lot to the international systems the World Bank and the IMF (international monetary Fund) which is a specialized agency of the United Nations according to Wittkopf and Kegley (153; 2000) the IMF purpose is to stabilize international monetary exchange rates it does so by influencing currency values and permitting members experiencing financial crises to recover by drawing foreign exchange from the IMF. Third world countries usually face economic problems and they are still developing in terms of infrastructure and economic growth the natural factors of droughts, famine and diseases make they operations of the economies so difficult that financial assistance will be of vital importance to upgrade the standards of the people so IMF and the world Bank act as the lender of the last resort when on country is threatened by economic melt down.
These actors have managed to improve the standards of living and to increase global participation and interaction of different cultures of the world through implementation of better policies initiated by all states for instance the Millennium Developmental Goals. Free Trade within the world has led to economic boost of other nations like Singapore and China according to The world Book Encyclopedia (233:2004) the world Trade Organization (WTO) aims to encourage the free flow of raw materials components finishened, finished products and services between countries. This has resulted in democratic relations between States hence the interaction between states.

The other intergovernmental are regional organizational actors such as the SADC, AU, EU and OAS are very much influential in maintaining regional peace and cooperation politically they have managed to address the problems of security, trade and democratization. This can be noted by the pivotal role played by SADC in the DRC civil war and the mediation of the conflict of political parties in Zimbabwe they by trying to bring peace and stability in the region and the world as whole as bad practice of politics can affect economy of the world. They help to promote regional economic development and economic integration among member states.

The ineffectiveness of the intergovernmental organizations economically and to the living standards can be noticed by the influence of this organizations in policy decision making that affect the countries negatively in their operations according to Rourke (67; 1993) the distribution of assets of power has not yet been achieved as power assets are the components of the national power that help to determines the country’s strength. The neo imperialist dependency created by these international actors have negative impacts to the third world countries as they are likely to suffer economically as the powerful states like the US control the world economy the recession of the 2009 originated form the USA so the strength of an individual states has shown how the intergovernmental organization are ineffective as they also depend of these powerful nations in their operations.

The threat to the existence of the nation state is now invertible due to the existence of the intergovernmental organizations. The failure to address the issues of the poverty and famine in the third World, with strict laundering policies of the World Bank and the IMF and heavy interests changed on the loans has worsened the situation of developing countries which in long term accumulated huge debts to these intergovernmental financial institutions, poor nations have not yet benefited form the functions of the international governments but have been left worse off with droughts turning into famine.

The nation state actors have been eroded their sovereignty as the international systems have dominated in the operations of the world politically, economically and socially according to Rourke (57:1993) a nation state actor is a territorially based political organization that claims and is generally accorded sovereignty. The weaker states have been left out in decision making and policy implementation intergovernmental actors are fueling the recolonization of the weaker states.

The non governmental organizations on the other hand have effectively addressed the concerns of the citizens from all parts of the globe politically they have managed to fight for women rights, human rights ,environmental protection, disarmament. Non governmental organization according to Baylis and Smith (435;2005) it is any group of people relating to each other regularly in some formal manner and engaging in collective action, provided that the activities are non-commercial and non violent and are not on behalf of a government. NGOs such as the Red Cross and Amnesty International have influenced the various governments across the world to have policies that are beneficial to human existence the living standards of the people around the world have been improved by NGOs humanitarian aid to war torn countries such as Somalia and the economic devastated counties of the world such as Zimbabwe the NGOs have distributed food, shelter, medication and water to the victims of the world devastated areas. Above all the non governmental organizations have been a source of link to supernatural organization such as the UN for its specialized agencies to take action.

The existence of the nongovernmental organization has according to Wittkopf and Kegley (162;2004) the NGOs have shaken the sovereignty of states governments over their foreign policies ,this has been severe in fragile of falling states where the revolt of NGOs has led to the collapse of the state and even led to the devolution of the central government power. NGOs in many states have been involved in the internal affairs of the states they have influenced regime change in states were government refuse to follow their policies. In addition according to Wittkopf and Kegley (162:2004) NGOs are making the borders porous and vulnerable both to external pressures and challenges from within their boundaries led to erosion of the state sovereignty.

Transnational actors have led to the development of infrastructure in the states they operate in led to economic growth and creation of employment in third world countries hence the improvement standards of living better housing, roads and health. According to Wittkopf and Kegley (173:2004) multinational companies advocates for liberal free trade and are active contributors to the globalization of the world. Transnational companies such as Shell, BP and Anglo American have been major facilitators of economic growth is the countries they host their operations. Transnational actors have many attributes that benefit the state they host their operations mostly of these transnational actors are located in the third world countries according to Baylis and Smith (433:2005) companies have their own interests of expanding their production ,rising the market share and maximizing their operations this will be accorded to the governments economic growth and employment.

Transnational Banks and MNCs according to Wittkopf and Kegley (173:2004) redistributes wealth in the world economy ,contributing to economic development in some states and stagnation in other they mainly focus on the development of the rich states by spreading the negative rewards of globalization of inequality and inequitably wealth distribution.

The negative impact of the transnational actors have mainly been on culture and political grounds Held and McGrew (198:2000) the world states culture have been eroded and promotion of westernization, McDonaldization and Coca colonization have been a way of influencing culture homogenization through out the world this has led to states losing their identity and historical background. The issue of sovereignty has been crucial as the states are losing their control in decision making and policy implementation. According to Baylis and Smith (430; 2005) two of the most important attributes of sovereignty, control over currency and control over the currency and control over foreign trade have been diminished due to the presence of these transnational actors. The governments have to loss sovereignty over economic issues and development.

As many of the transnational companies are owned by the west and the US this have led to the powerful states extending their national interests in other states this can be shown by the control of oil reserves in the Middle East by the US government through their transnational companies. According to Baylis and Smith (431:2005) the US control of TNCs leads to extraterritoriality by which the governments attempts to exercise it’s legal authority in the territory of another state with the use of domestic law to control the global activities. These transnational companies can be involved in illicit trading of arms, drugs, stolen goods and exploitation of women they have operations that maybe illegal like the environmental degradation due to the lack of government policies on environmental protection in favor of economics growth objectives.

Despite that they have been a great concern in national politics and international politics on how the international systems operate, with the negative impact of their operations in individual sates and internationally. The international systems have functioned well to strengthen economies of the countries and increasing interaction between countries as well as political relations among states and improving the living standards of the people through out the world due to these international systems the globalization process possible.


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Held D. and McGrew A. 2000 The Global transformation Reader Blackwell Publishers Inc USA

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Wittkopf E.R and Kegley C.W Jr: 2004: World Politics trend and Transformation: Thomson Learning Inc USA