(i) Stretched Social Relations
(ii) Intensification of flows
(iii) Increasing interpenetration
(a) Stretched Social Relatons according to Held (2000;18) cultural, economic and political process in society are increasingly stretched across nation state boundaries so that events and decisions taking place on one side of the world are significant impact on the other. This is displayed by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in April 1986 according to Held (2000;17) the devastating effects were not locally noticed but at a global stage as radioactive particles carried by the cloud across North Britain which caused rainy weather and affected 70000 sheep in Cumbria.
(b) Intensification of flows found in the density of communication and interaction across globe in which the impacts of events far away are felt more strongly according to Held (2000;19) electronic flows, communications network stretching across the world have the potential to connect people previously distanced from what went elsewhere . Communication that resides between countries on the nuclear waste reprocessing according to Held (2000;18) nuclear waste from all over Britain and Japan is taken to Sellafield for reprocessing as well Sellafield has produced plutonium for the British nuclear industry.
(c) Increasing Interpenetration according to Held (2000;15) it is the increasing intensity of global interactions as social relations stretch relations there is an increasing interpenetration of economic and social practices bring apparently distant cultures and face to face with each other at global stage. The effects of nuclear waste in England resulted in the plan to ship the waste around the world to the Aborigine community according to Held (2000;18) the deposition of nuclear waste in Australia will make the deposits remain radioactive for 25000 year this illustrate that actions of one nations can affect the other at a global sphere.
Question 2; What are the main arguments of the following theoretical perspectives on globalisation?
a. Globalists; view globalization as a positive trend that will benefit consumers and increase the scale and allocative efficiency of markers of goods and capital. The argument of this perspective according to Kirkbride (2001;89) the concept is neo-liberal thought were market forces are driven by individual focusing on their own interests while Gwynne (2003;8) argues that globalization is bring about denationalization of economies through the establishment of national networks of production trade and finance. Another argument according to Kirkbride (2001;89) as a perspective seen as a move by international capital and secure power and exploitation at global level.
b.Transformationalists; according to Gwynne (2000 globalization is uncertain although a powerful force yet contingent and with contradictions. According to Kirkbride (2001;89) the argument is that international economic relations have changed to such an extent that traditionalist views of the nation economy to be controlled to achieve domestic aims is no longer viable while Gwynne (2003;9) argue that development is uneven at global scale.
c. Traditionalist (sceptics). According to Kirkbride (2001;89) have a sceptical view of the wider claims of the strong globalist arguing that the international economy has not altered to such an extent that the existence of national economies as viable economic category has been undermined. Arguments to this perspective according to Kirkbride (2001;89) is that international economy is not as global as made out by the globalist position although traditionalist accept that there has been international economic integration but the extent of this activity has neither completely undermined salience of national economic management as welfare benefits can still be secured at national level.
3.Define globalisation using the following tenets/features
(a)Economic; Steger (2002;49) globalisation is the phenomenon reflected in the liberalization and integration of global markets and the reduction of governmental interference in the economy
(b). Political; Steger (2002;53) globalisation as an indispensible tool for the realization of a global order based on free market principle.
(c). Cultural; according to Steger (2002;54) globalization is defined as a densely growing network of complex cultural interconnections and interdependence that characterise the modern social life.
(d). Theoretical/ideological-according to Steger(2002;47) globalization is defined as politically motivated and contributes towards the construction of popular beliefs and values.
Hist and Thompson
Pessimistic view they argue that the present economy is not new. Economic industrial technology began to be generalized in the 1960s
There is a new global economy facilitated by IT and integration of markets globally
TNCs and MNCs very rare most companies are based nationally and trade muti-nationally. Rare because companies are not multi-national but trade international
The global economy is driven by TNCs and MNCs
Foreign Direct investment are still concentrated on the West Capital mobility is not producing a shift of investment to poor countries
Globalization influencing capital mobility across the globe as all countries are mutual beneficiaries
There is not real economy, trade, investment flows as all are concentrated in North America, Europe and Japan as these are countries are getting richer so there is no globalised economy
International trade flows of capital are happening at global scale
Power of Markets
Major powers are the ones coordinating policies in order to influence market operations
The present global markets as uncontrollable force beyond the force and control of nation states
According to Held (2000;110) “Globalization is not only the claim on the interpretation of the current state of international economic system. There is a rival claim summed up by the term regionalization. The international economy is characterized by regional trading and investment blocs”
defining globalisation: understanding global change’ from Held, D (ed.) 2000 A Globalising Word? London & New York: The Open University Press.
“Chapter 1” from Kirkbride, P (ed.) 2001 Globalisation: the external pressures, Chichester: Ashridge
“the academic debate over globalisation” from Steger, MB 2002 Globalism: the new market ideology, Lanham: Rowman
“the globalisation debate” from Held, McGrew, Goldblatt & Perraton (eds.) 2000 Global Transformations: Politics, economics and culture, Cambridge: Polity.
“Unravelling the concept of globalisation” from Gwynne, RN et al 2003 Alternative Capitalisms: geographies of emerging regions, London: Arnold.